Zhang Da-Chian 張大千 (1899-1983)


Chinese 簡介

Chronicle 年表


Forgery 繪製贗品

Axioms 名言

Anecdote 軼事

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Painting 畫風

Publication 著述

Books 圖書

References 參考

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Updated: 03/15/2013

1. Introduction to Zhang Da-Chian's Life

pronounced as Zan Da Chien

Traditional Chinese: 張大千

Wade-Giles: Chang Ta-Chien

Simplified Chinese: 张大千

Pinyin: Zhāng Dàqiān


Gibbon rerincarnation


Zhang Da-Chian (1899-1983) casts a long shadow over the modern history of Chinese painting. As a painter, he was known for his singular ability to mix traditional techniques and styles with contemporary ideas and currents. As a collector, he accumulated important examples from all genres of Chinese painting and left behind copious seals and inscriptions. As a forger, Zhang so mastered the art of deception that his fakes were purchased unwittingly by nearly every major art museum in the United States—the MFA included. Indeed, the first question asked by experts when a work is considered suspect is: “Could this be by Zhang Da-Chian?”

JH: not mixed with Western, he said he had not learned Western

1899-1983) was one of the best-known Chinese artists of the twentieth century. He is also regarded by many art experts as one of the most gifted master forgers of the twentieth century. He collected and used the largest number of seals throughout the Chinese history.

Born in a family of artists in Sichuan, China, he studied textile dyeing techniques abroad and returned to establish a successful career selling his paintings in Shanghai. A staunch supporter of the Guomingtang, he left China in 1948 and moved to Mogi das Cruzes, Brazil, and then to Carmel, California, before finally settling in Taipei, Taiwan. 

A meeting between Chang and Picasso in 1956 was viewed as a summit meeting between the preeminent masters of Eastern and Western art. Picasso showed Chang some drawings done in "Chinese" style, but Chang remarked that they were not executed with the right tools and gave Picasso a set of Chinese brushes.


歡喜如來圖 Buddha's Manifestation of Benevolence

张大千。张大千说英国出的一种水彩笔十分名贵,是用英国某地黄牛耳朵内的细毛制成,2 500头黄牛才出一磅黄牛耳毫。牛耳毫制成的画笔,吸水饱满,有弹性。

This exhibition focuses on all three facets of Zhang’s career and features a rich selection of works from the MFA alongside loans from private collections. Of particular interest is a master forgery acquired by the Museum in 1957 as an authentic work of the tenth century. The painting, which was allegedly a landscape by the Five Dynasties period master Guan Tong, is one of Zhang’s most ambitious forgeries and serves to illustrate both his skill and his audacity.

painter and collector who was one of the most internationally renowned Chinese artists of the 20th century.


As a child, Zhang was encouraged by his family to pursue painting. In 1917 his elder brother, Zhang Shanzi (an artist famous for his tiger paintings), accompanied him abroad, to study textile dyeing.

Eternal masterpiece ( 傳世之作 )

From CP

Chang Dai-chien [Zhang Da-Chian] (1899-1983) was a native of Nei-chiang, Szechwan. His original given name Chuan was later changed to Yuan, while his childhood name Chi was later incorporated into his studio name Chi-yuan. He took the religious name Dai-chien upon becoming a Buddhist monk, and after returning to the laity he called himself Dai-chien chu-shih or "Lay believer Dai-chien."

At the age of 21 he studied under Tseng Hsi and Li Jui-ching. Taking Shih Tao and Pa-ta Shan-jen as his starting point, he sought out as many paintings by famous artists of past centuries as he could to copy. Beginning with an impressionistic style and progressing to meticulous brushwork, he developed the ability to move between these techniques with complete master. In 1941 he traveled to DunHuang where he spent two years and seven months copying wall paintings. Here he studied traditional coloration and line drawing methods, being particularly moved by the grand scale and complex layout of the high Tang style. The sumptuous splendor of high Tang art inspired him with the desire to create great art.

Besides copying from old masters Chang Dai-chien was also expert at painting from life.

Chang Dai-chien traveled widely in Europe and America, where he came into contact with the contemporary art movement in the West. This spurred a sea change in his methods of painting, and he created unique splashed-ink and splashed-color styles, expanding the potential of plane surfaces and coloration. In his later years, he combined splashed ink and splashed color with the masterly texture strokes and liberation of his early years to form a new synthesis. Hovering between concrete and abstract, reveling in freedom and unpredictability, Chang Dai-chien's work created a whole new style of modern Chinese painting.

Zhang was also a political figure.

-- By Chen Kang-Shun

Riding a Mule in the Winter Forrest by Lee Cheng (once collected by Zhang Da-Chian)





When Zhang Da-Chian visited the MFA in 1953, he was distressed to find that
the collection did not include a single one of his paintings. He bequeathed
this important work, a nostalgic reimagination of his native Sichuan, to
address what he considered an unnacceptable gap.





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2. 張大千簡介


張大千一生充滿傳奇,bandit, 如曾赴日學染織,又入寺為僧,並在戰火中遠赴敦煌臨摹壁畫等。雖四處遊歷,對居所卻十分考究,不論四川「梅邨」、巴西「八德園」、美國「可以居」和「環蓽盦」到台北「摩耶精舍」,均極富園林之勝。

 大气磅礴,清新自然 unlike Pu Ru, he was happy















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[This is the answer to the question.]

Year   Age  




In spring, went to Dunhuang the second time; held “The Art Show of Dunhuang Outline Drawing” in Chengdu; arrived in Lanzhou in winter.









In April, “Works of Art from Dunhuang” held in Tokyo; traveled to Europe the first time, and went to Rome; held in Paris the art show in the Louvre Museum and “Dunhuang Paintings” in the Oriental Museum; in July, met Pablo Picasso and exchanged paintings with each other.







1899 - (Jihai Year) born at Neijiang County, Sichuan Province, on May 19th, 1899 (first day of the fourth month, year twenty-five according to Emperor Guangxu, the Qing dynasty).

1908 - (Wushen Year) started to learn drawing after his mother: outline drawing of flowers and animals without color or shade.

1911 - (Xinhai Year) family conditions improved with the opening of “ Yi Wei Li” (profits from righteousness), a grocery store; entered the American-Chinese primary school at Neijiang run by Christians.


1914 - (Jiayin Year) entered Qiujing Middle School, Chongqing; house searched and property confiscated for Zhang Shanzi, his second elder brother, having participated in anti-Yuan Shikai campaign; Shanzi fled abroad. 1916 - (Bingchen Year) kidnapped by gangsters at Youtingpu, Sichuan, and forced to be an advisor there until about 100 days later when he managed to escape. 1917 - (Dingsi Year) went abroad; learnt commercial weaving and textile dyeing, and painting.


1919 - (Jiwei Year) returned to Shanghai to teach at a Christian school; began to study under Zeng Xi (Tseng Hsi) and changed his Given name into “Yuan;” became, in the same year, a Buddhist believer at Songjiang with the Buddhist monastic name of “Da-Chian,” but three months later resumed his secular life; returned to Neijiang and got married to Zeng Zhengrong before studying calligraphy under Li Ruiqing (Li Jui-ching) in Shanghai, and also starting to study Shi Tao (Shih Tao) and copy Zhu Da (Ba Da Shan Ren).


1920 - (Gengshen Year) returned to Sichuan from Shanghai after Li Ruiqing’s death. 1921 - (Xinyou Year) presented inscriptions as a gift to Zisheng Temple, Neijiang, and started to sell his paintings and calligraphy. 1922 - (Renxu Year) got married to Huang Ningsu. 1923 - (Kuihai Year) moved to Songjiang; and sold copies of Shi Tao’s paintings in Shanghai.

1924 - (Jiazi Year) Father died, and his poetry, paintings and calligraphy distinguished in the group of “Qiu Ying Society” in Shanghai.


1925 - (Yichou Year) the first one-man painting show held at Ningbo Guild House, Shanghai. 1926 - (Bingyin Year) first time to admit pupils; extravagantly gambled at “Shi Zhong Society,” Shanghai, but disappeared from the gambling hall soon after. 1927 - (Dingmao Year) traveled to Mount Huang the first time.


1928 - (Wuchen Year) shared “Da Feng House” with Shanzi, and organized “Mount Huang Society” to promote Mount Huang travel.

1929 - (Jisi Year) his two works of art entered for the First National Art Exhibition, acted as a council member for national exhibitions.

1930 - (Gengwu Year) second time to Mount Huang; held an art show in Shanghai; death of Zeng Xi. 

1931 - (Xingwei Year) accompanied the coffin of Zeng Xi to Hengyang, Hunan province; climbed Mount Heng; went abroad as a representative for the “Chinese Art Show of the Tang, Song, Yuan, and Ming Dynasties”

1932 - (Renshen Year) moved to Wangshi Garden, Suzhou, with Shanzi; traveled to Pyongan Mountains, Korea. 


1933 - (Kuiyou Year) art works shown at “Modern Chinese Paintings” in Paris, France; The Lotus collected by a museum in Paris, and the Scenery of Southern China collected by Moscow Museum; held art shows in Shanghai and Nanjing.

1934 - (Jiaxu Year) the one-man painting show in Peking (today’s Beijing); traveled to Mount Hua, also to Korea; invited as professor of Chinese paintings at the Department of Fine Arts, the Central University, Nanjing; the one-man painting show held in Nanjing; traveled to Mount Tai in August and held an art show in Ji’nan. 

1935 - (Yihai Year) work of art shown at a British gallery; traveled to Mount Huang the third time; resigned as the professor at the Central University; art show held at Peking and Hankou; in autumn, traveled to Mount Huang and Longmen (the Dragon Gate) on Yellow River the second time; The Art Work of Zhang Shanzi and Zhang Da-Chian (two volumes) published in Shanghai; got married to Yang Wuanjun. 

1936 - (Bingzi Year) Mother’s death; held “Recent Works By Zhang Da-Chian” in Nanjing; art shows also held in shanghai and Tianjin; moved to the Summer Palace, Peking, and held paintings-on-fans show in Peking; Zhang Da-Chian’s Anthology published for the first time; invited as adviser to “ Research Section” under Ancient Relics Exhibition Institute, Peking.

1937 - (Dingchou Year) held “The Joint Show of Paintings, Calligraphy, and Inscriptions on Bronzes and Stones” with Fang Jiekan in Peking; foreign aggressors entered Peking, China, and there Zhang felt trapped.


1938 - (Wuying Year) left Peking in May; an art show at Yong’an (in sound) Restaurant, French leased territory, Tianjin; arrived in Hong Kong via Shanghai by sea; an art show in Hong Kong; in August, traveled to Guilin with Xu Beihong and others; came to Chongqing and created patriotic works of art with Shanzi to call on anti-invasion action, and held “The Art Show on the Move;” besides, held “The Art Show for Contributions to Anti-Invasion Activities;” arrived in Chengdu via Neijiang; Shanzi went to West Europe and North America, presented “ Works of Art by Zhang Shanzi and Zhang Da-Chian” for contributions to anti-invasion activities.


1939 - (Jimao Year) lived in Qingcheng Mountain and traveled to Jiange, Sichuan; held art shows in Chengdu and Chongqing respectively; twice went to Jiajiang for the trial production of “Da Feng paper.”


1940 - (Gengchen Year) visited Dunhuang (Tunhuang) the first time; learnt that Shanzi died on the way back from abroad, went from Guangyuan to Chongqing for mourning.



1942 - (Renwu Year) in spring, went to Qinghai to invite Tibetan Lamas; went to Dunhuang the third time, and copied Frescoes there; as a member of the preparatory committee for the “The National Dunhuang Art Institute.”

use my bigger one

1943 - (Kuiwei Year) in summer, returned to Sichuan from Dunhuang; had stayed there and copied Frescoes for two years and seven months, with the total of over 200 copies, which were first shown in Lanzhou; lived in Qingcheng Mountain; his drastically-changed painting style resulted from the Frescoes of Dunhuang. 


1944 - (Jiashen Year) “The Art Show of Copies of Dunhuang Frescoes” in Chengdu in January, and, in March and May, the same show in Chongqing; admitted as research member of Chinese Fine Art Institute; An Special Anthology of Zhang Da-Chian’s Copies of Dunhuang Frescoes, and Outline Drawings Copied from Dunhuang Frescoes published; traveled to Mount Emei. 


1945 - (Yiyou Year) completion of the four-screen Giant Lotus and the eight-screen Scenes in the West Garden, which were exhibited in Chengdu; many paintings of beautiful ancient women created with much changed painting style; returned to his hometown after the victory of the Anti-Invasion War. 


1946 - (Bingxu Year) collected ancient calligraphy and paintings in Peking; art show in Shanghai; art work exhibited in a Paris museum, and also shown in “ Modern Painting Show” held at Musee national d’Art Moderne by UNESCO; the Chinese section of the Show invited to be exhibited in London, Geneva, and Prague. 


1947 - (Dinghai Year) color printing of Anthology of Zhang Da-Chian’s Copies of Dunhuang Frescoes published; returned to Chengdu from Shanghai, and went to Xikang province for paintings from life; “The Show of Paintings from Life in Xikang” held in Chengdu; went to Shanghai, and published lithographic printing album of Travels in Xikang, and published series of poems of the same title; married to Xu Wenbo. 


1948 - (Wuzi Year) traveled to West Hills, Peking with Xu Beihong and Xie Zhiliu; invited to be honorary professor of the Fine Arts College of Peking; went to Taiwan for paintings from life with Lang Jingshan. 


1949 - (Jichou Year) early this year, arrived from Taiwan in Hong Kong and held an art show; painted a Lotus for Chairman Mao Zedong; returned to Sichuan from Macao; near the end of the year, left Chengdu for India via Taiwan under the invitation of the University of Darjeelin to give lectures. 


1950 - (Gengyin Year) the one-man painting show at New Delhi; went to and stayed in Ajanta Grottoes in Maharashtra State, India for three months to make copies of frescoes, and studied the difference between them and those in Dunhuang before going to Darjeeling to live till the end of the year, when leaving for Hong Kong. 


1951 - (Xingmao Year) early this year, once again went to Darjeeling, and returned to Hong Kong in the summer to hold a one-man painting show; sold to the country three precious ancient paintings including Gu Hongzhong’s The Banquet in Han Xizai’s House. 


1952 - (Renchen Year) moved to South America, and stayed in Argentina; the one-man show held in Buenos Aires. 


1953 - (Kuisi Year) purchased land in Sao Paulo, Brazil and planned Ba De (Eight Virtues) Garden; moved into the Garden in March; an art exhibition in Taipei; presented 12 pieces of work of art to the City Hall of Paris.


1954 - (Jiawu Year) traveled in the United States while holding art exhibitions.


1955 - (Yiwei Year) completion of Ba De Garden; Famous Da Feng House Paintings (four volumes) published abroad; in December, “Exhibition of Zhang Da-Chian’s Paintings and Calligraphy” held and sponsored jointly by other Asian artists.

Zhang Da-Chian's Exhibition of Reproductions of the Dunhuang Fresco Mural Paintings held abroad.

1957 - (Dingyou Year) his diabetes caused eye disease, and resulted in gradual decline in eyesight. 


1958 - (Wuxu Year) an art show in Sao Paulo; elected as “The Best Contemporary Painter in the World” by the International Fine Arts Association in New York and gold medal granted. 


1959 - (Jihai Year) the permanent Chinese painting show established in the Paris Museum with 12 paintings exhibited at the closing ceremony; went to Taiwan before visiting the United States, Sweden, Switzerland, West Germany, and Spain; received the “Gold Medal for Fine Arts” by Mei Yiqi in Taipei; began to paint in the splashed-ink-and-color technique, which marked his tremendous change in painting style. 


1960 - (Gengzi Year) the show of recent paintings in Paris; 30 paintings exhibited in Brussels, Athens, and Madrid; Zhang Da-Chian’s Paintings published in Hong Kong. 


1961 - (Xingchou Year) the show of recent paintings in Geneva; the special exhibition of lotus paintings in Paris, and some of them collected by Modern Museum of New York; an art show in Sao Paulo; Anthology of Zhang Da-Chian’s Paintings published by the “ Oriental Society,” Hong Kong; several treatises including On Paintings coming out.

1962 - (Renyin Year) an invitation exhibition held in Hong Kong for the occasion of the inauguration ceremony for Hong Kong City Hall, Hong Kong.


 1963 - (Kuimao Year) a one-man painting show in the Victoria Memorial Hall, Singapore; art shows held in Kuala Lumpur, New York, and Hong Kong; in the United States, six huge paintings of lotus on large screens sold for US$140,000, setting the highest record of Chinese painting sale.

1964 - (Jiachen Year) an art show in Bangkok, Thailand and Cologne, West Germany; Mayor of Cologne, after the exhibition there, accompanied Zhang cruising on the Rhine, and the German Commercial Bank and an airline company bought all his exhibits to have a tour show in West Germany; presented paintings to some officials in Chongqing, Sichuan.


1965 - (Yisi Year) an art show in London.


1966 - (Bingwu Year) art shows in Hong Kong and Sao Paulo.


1967 - (Dingwei Year) art shows in Stanford University Museum of the United States; the show of recent works in “ National Museum of History,” Taipei; presented 62 copies of Dunhuang Frescoes to “National Palace Museum,” Taiwan; Anthology of Zhang Da-Chian’s Paintings (the new edition) published by the “ Oriental Society,” Hong Kong.


1968 - (Wushen Year) honorary Ph.D. in philosophy granted by “the Chinese Fine Arts College,” Taiwan; completion of the huge “Thousands of Miles on the Yangtze;” the special exhibition in “National Museum of History,” Taipei, museums in New York and Chicago; lectures at the Princeton University on Chinese fine arts; according to public opinion poll, The World Newspaper in Bangkok ranked Zhang the “best contemporary Chinese painter;” purchased some land in Carmel, California, to build his future house. 


1969 - (Jiyou Year) “Special Dunhuang Frescoes” in “The National Palace Museum,” Taiwan; exhibition tour in museums and galleries of Los Angeles, New York, and Boston. 


1970 - (Gengxu Year) an art show in San Francisco, and built a house (Huan Bi Yan) to dwell in California. 



1971 - (Xinhai Year) the show of recent paintings held in the Hong Kong City Hall, Hong Kong; frequently traveled between Ba De Garden, Brazil and Carmel, the United States. 


1972 - (Renzi Year) death of Zhang Weixiu, his fourth elder brother; moved from Ba De Garden, Sao Paulo to Carmel home in California; the one-man painting show in Andrew Gallery, Los Angeles, earned the title of honorary citizen of Los Angeles; “Zhang Da-Chian’s Paintings in 40-Year Retrospection (1922-1970)” in De Young Museum of San Francisco; wrote his Autobiography. 


1973 - (Kuichou Year) exhibition of retrospection in “ National Museum of History,” Taipei, and the Museum set up a special hall for “The World (Da-Chian’s World);” “The Art Exhibition by Zhang Da-Chian and Xinyi (the twelfth nephew)” in New York. 

1974 - (Jiayin Year) “Paintings by Zhang Da-Chian” in Hong Kong City Hall, Hong Kong, which published another Anthology of Zhang Da-Chian’s Paintings; “Paintings by Zhang Da-Chian” jointly held by “National Museum of History,” Taiwan; honorary Ph.D. in humanities granted by the Pacific University, California, the United States. 


1975 - (Yimao Year) death of Zhang Licheng, his third elder brother; “Early Works of Zhang Da-Chian” and “Paintings by Zhang Da-Chian” held at“ National Museum of History,” Taiwan; in September, “Famous Chinese and Western Paintings” also in the Museum, with over 80 works of art in the previous 30 years by Zhang Da-Chian on display; “Modern Paintings of Republic of China” with Zhang’s more than 60 paintings jointly held by the “National Museum of History,” Taiwan and “Korean-Chinese Fine Arts Union,” South Korea at the °ßNational Modern Gallery,” Seoul. 


1976 - (Bingchen Year) “Paintings in Honor of Zhang Da-Chian’s Return” at “National Museum of History,” Taiwan; Taiwan Education Administration awarded Zhang the plaque inscribed with “the great master in fine arts;” Selected Works, Zhang Da-Chian’s Anthology (the First Volume), and the Scroll on Jiu Ge published in Taiwan; the documentary of the Techniques of Zhang Da-Chian’s Paintings completed.

1977 - (Dingsi Year) made appraisal on genuine or fake ancient Chinese paintings and calligraphy in Taiwan before going back to America; invited to hold the show of recent works in Taichung in June; the five-year-compiled Paintings by Zeng Xi, the Best Hunanese Painter in Chronological Order published in Hong Kong.


1978 - (Xuwu Year) went from the United States to Kao-hsiung for the one-man painting exhibition in March; in August; his family moved from the California to the so-called the “Abode of Maya-Painter” at the suburb of Taipei; art shows in Tainan and Seoul; Paintings by Zhang Da-Chian published; Zhang Da-Chian’s Anthology (the Second Volume) published in Taiwan.


1979 - (Jiwei Year) more and more articles on Zhang’s paintings and life in Chinese Mainland; “Paintings by Three Masters in Contemporary China-Zhang Da-Chian, Pu Xinshe, and Huang Junbi” held by Chinese Cultural Association, Hong Kong; four volumes of Photo Album of Zhang Da-Chian’s Unattended Ba De Garden in Brazil coming out in Taiwan. 


1980 - (Gengshen Year) had correspondence and exchanged paintings with his relatives and friends in Chinese Mainland; “Paintings by Three Masters in Contemporary China-Zhang Da-Chian, Pu Xinshe, and Huang Junbi” with his 25 paintings on show at the National Gallery in the National Museum, Singapore; “Paintings and Calligraphy by Zhang Da-Chian” held by “National Museum of History,” Taiwan; jointly created “Longevity of the Precious Island”-a long scroll of landscape.


1981 - (Xinyou Year) five volumes of Collections of Zhang Da-Chian’s Paintings published in Sichuan; a wall calendar entitled Paintings by Zhang Da-Chian coming out in Tianjin; presented autograph to his home city and home county; the exhibition of recent works in “National Museum of History,” Taiwan; participated in “Paintings and Calligraphy by Famous Chinese Artists” in Hong Kong; invited and took part in the “New Trend of Chinese Painting” held in the Oriental Museum, Paris; in July, started his creation of Lushan Tu (The Panorama of Mount Lu)-a monumental work.


1982 - (Renxu Year) Zhang Da-Chian-A Master of Chinese Painting, a color documentary, shot jointly by Sichuan and Gansu television stations; “Ink and Color Paintings by Fu Baoshi, Xu Beihong, and Zhang Da-Chian” in Taipei in January; in April, Jiang Jingguo awarded Zhang the medal; invited and participated in “Modern Chinese Paintings” in Kuala Lumpur; Zhang Da-Chian’s Anthology (the Third Volume) published in Taiwan; resumed his work on The Panorama of Mount Lu.


1983 - (Kuihai Year) The Panorama of Mount Lu almost completed; in January, participated in “Paintings and Calligraphy by Zhang Da-Chian” held by “National Museum of History,” Taiwan; Zhang Da-Chian’s Anthology (the Fourth Volume) published in Taiwan; hospitalized on March 8th; passed away in Rongmin (in sound) General Hospital, Taipei on April 2nd, at the age of 84; funeral held on April 16th, and ashes buried on the hill in front of his residence - “The Abode of Maya-Painter,” Taipei; “Paintings by Zhang Da-Chian” exhibited in Beijing, Shanghai, and Chengdu.





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[This is the answer to the question.]


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5. 仿摹名作﹑繪製贗品的張大千 Forgery & Duplication of Paintings














Another version:




張大千見黃老畫家看走了眼,便試探性地開玩笑說:大師如此識畫,真是好眼力,如果真是喜愛,晚輩意割愛相讓,不過... ...”“不過?”“要用你收藏的石濤的山水橫披來換張大千的話尚未說完,黃賓虹便爽快地答應:可以,可以!

















陳半丁問張大千「有何賜教」。張大千說: 「原來是這個冊子呀﹐我早就知道了。」陳不信﹐他無法想像這麼名貴的畫冊怎麼會讓一個無名小卒輕易見到。要張大千說說畫冊內容。於是張大千馬說出第一頁畫的是什麼﹐第二頁畫的是什麼﹐第三頁畫的是什麼……題款﹐鈐印等﹐一一道來。陳半丁和客人們一邊翻看一邊對照﹐越看越驚奇。果然﹐這畫冊的內容與張大千所說毫無二致。






My book - Chang being ripped off by other businessmen





民國時期的高仿書畫 (http://www.gaofangshuhua.com/),其藝術水平和欣賞價值都很高,不明清時期的蘇州片子、揚州的皮匠刀、北京的后門造那樣,藝術水平很差,讓人一眼就能看出來。這些高仿的書畫多用分工合作、充分發揮各自勢的方式,有多人聯合完成。歷代的贗品相比,這些出自名家之手的東西,不論是畫面圖、筆墨功夫還是裝裱水平都下真跡一等,与原作十分近似。販賣這些高仿書畫的人,有的是有社會地位的人,有的甚至是當時書畫鑒定的權威。這樣的大人物參到高仿書畫的經營之中,這在明清時期是不多見的。不但書畫如此,青銅器也一樣。著名的學者容庚是研究青銅器的專家,編有《金文編》等名著。就是這樣的專家,也參到了高仿青銅器的偽造和買賣中。文化大革命中有個笑話:在一次批斗容庚的大會上,有人揭發他在解放前的哪年哪月,向外國人賣了一件青銅器絕品,是通外國;沒想到容庚很大方地承認有此事,不過又加了一句,那是我弄的一件假東西蒙外國人的,搞得眾人大笑。


劉伯年的作偽古畫有主要個特點:一是他雖然拜在師傅的門下,但他的畫路更接近于他的同鄉張大千,對宋人作品揣摩的很,無論是在線條還是在設色方面都有很大程度的對應性,惟妙惟肖;二是他的做舊功夫非常高明,不論是紙上的包漿,還是紙絹的都做得非常好,可稱是天衣無縫;三是他所臨仿的對象多是選擇工筆或小寫意的花鳥、人物,沒有大寫意風格的作品。原因很簡單,工筆或是小寫意的畫繪時間較長,工序較雜,不是一朝一夕能完成的。如果摹仿者的水平高、心態穩,可較容易仿到原作相近的程度。這是他的仿古作品能夠讓很多大鑒賞家走眼被各大博物館收藏的主要原因。如建國前,他臆造了一張《梨花鱖魚圖》,托名是宋代畫家李延之的作品,這件作品生動、自然,沒有亦步亦趨摹仿古人所產生的生硬、局促之感。它先被人悄悄地弄到了北京,由畫商陸鯉庭賣給了上海博物館,把它作為精品收入《畫苑綴英》。劉伯年看到畫冊感到事態嚴重,就主動給有關部門寫信,說明他造這張假畫的情況,才真相大白 。






第一個階段是1920年代到1940年代,這是他造假畫的初始期。在此階段他仿造的主要是明清時期的書畫作品,從石濤、八大山人到唐寅、陳洪綬的作品都有。由于張大千是個收藏大家,手中藏有這些人的畫。偽造的書法往往是東拼西湊,或者是完全臆造。當時這些名家的畫作大都在私人收藏家的手中秘不示人,plus printing less 社會上沒有多少人見過名家的真跡,使他大量的仿品輕、順利地流入收藏家的手中,其中有些是日本的企業家和書畫收藏者。現在看這一時期張大千的仿品,其水平都不是很高,比較容易看出來。

第二階段是1940年代到几個前。他在這個時期到敦煌臨摹了大量的壁畫,對唐宋時期的人物畫研究得其深入。而他的書畫藏品此時也由明清擴展到唐宋,收藏有南宋董源的山水《溪岸圖》、顧閎中的《韓熙載夜宴圖》 名作。他又開始大量臆造唐宋時期的作品。由于他此時正值盛年,精力充沛,其繪畫的技法無論是人物還是山水,都以達到運用自如的境界。加之他手中有真跡可以參考,在裝裱和做舊方面都達到了亂真的地步,同那些明清時期的蘇州片子和揚州皮匠刀相比,兩者不可同語。此時很多外國的收藏家(主要是美國的收藏家們),對中國古代書畫的收藏興趣大增,而此時清宮和龐萊臣的藏品又開始紛紛流傳到市面上,張大千偽造的唐宋元時期書畫也乘這股風潮流向國外



吳湖帆是民國年間上海最有名的畫家三吳一馮之一。他的祖父是著名的書法家吳大,家中祖傳的青銅器和書畫很多,加上吳湖帆的眼力好,又收購了大量的明清書畫,成為上海最有影響的書畫收藏家之一。吳湖帆在書畫鑒定上的成就之高,可以從鑒定黃公望的兩件山水畫上現出來:清代乾隆非常喜歡歷代書畫,但在鑒定的時候有時失之于主觀的臆斷,將黃公望的《富春山居圖》看成贗品的就是吳湖帆。1930年代,吳湖帆在為中國古物赴英國展的展品審查過程中發現了自己的失誤,為這件真跡平了反。他還在朋友的書畫舊藏中偶然發現了《富春山居圖》的首卷《乘山圖》,并以高收購下來,此畫現在是浙江博物館的鎮館之寶。吳湖帆在他的收藏生涯中也存在一些問題:一是他收進了一張所謂的宋代畫家梁楷的《睡猿圖》,其實這張畫是張大千造的。他收到之,請著名的鑒定家葉公綽于該畫的詩堂上面題了天下第一梁瘋子七字跋文 (link to Liang Kai),此畫現存海外一家博物館中。從該畫的影印件上看,明顯是張大千自己的畫風,梁楷的風格差別很大。但從吳湖帆在該畫上寫的跋文來看,他很肯定地認為此畫是傳家之寶,珍貴常。以吳湖帆的鑒定水平和他對張大千畫風的熟悉,加之畫上還有張大千請葉公綽來幫忙助陣的題跋,分明是此地無銀三百兩,吳湖帆應很容易看出這是一件老朋友的杰作,上當的可能性很小,所以,這是吳湖帆明明知道是張大千的假畫,但為了經濟或其它目的,故意編出自己上當的故事來騙騙世人而已。


流水作業的譚敬造假集團:說起中國近代集團作偽來,是不能不提譚敬(Google book search: 百年收藏, page 12)。他的集團所作的假畫不知讓多少收藏家和博物館上當受騙。著名鑒定家張珩在主持國家文物局工作的時候,經常對周圍的人說:在海外征集書畫的時候,要特別注意從譚敬手中流出的東西。














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8. Essays on Painting

link to PU RU 但經過若干年之後,也許我們以為極新的,哪知卻是極舊的

Essays on Painting by Zhang Da-Chian



一、山水 (Landscape)




二、人物 (Figures)


三、畫梅 (Painting Plums)


四 畫荷 (Painting Lotus)




                   -- 葉淺予《張大千的藝術道路》



五、畫竹 (Painting Bamboos)

古人畫竹稱作寫竹,因為畫竹是等於寫字一樣,用筆要完全合乎書法。(The ancient Chinese called painting bamboos "writing" bamboos. Because the principles of brushwork to paint bamboos coincide with those in practicing calligraphy, painting bamboos is equivalent to writing Chinese characters with brushes.)








畫家自身便認為是上帝,有創造萬物的特權本領。畫中要它下雨就可以下雨,要出太陽就可以出太陽。造化在我手裡,不為萬物所驅使,這裡缺少一山峰,便加上一個山峰;那裡該刪去一堆亂石,心中有個神仙境界,就可以畫出一個神仙境界。這就是科學家所謂的改造自然,也就是古人所說的"筆補造化天無功"。總之,畫家可以在畫中創造另一個天地,要如何去畫,就如何去畫。有時要表現現實,有時也不能太顧現實,這種取捨,全憑自己思想。何以如此?簡略地說,大抵畫一種東西,不應當求太像,也不應當故意求不像。求它像,當然不如攝影; 如就它不像,那有何以畫它呢?所以一定要在像與不像之間,得到超物的天趣,方算是藝術。正是古人所謂遺貌取神,又等於說我筆底下所創造的新天地,叫識者一看自然會辨認得出來。我看到真美就畫下來,不美就拋棄了它。談到真美,當然不單指物的形態,是要悟到物的神韻。這可引證蘇軾評王摩詰的兩句話:"畫中有詩,詩中有畫。"畫是無聲的詩,詩是有聲的畫。怎樣能達到這個境界呢?就是說要意在筆先,心靈一觸,就能跟著筆墨表露在紙上。所以說"形成于未畫之先""神留于既畫之後"。近代有極多物事,為古代所沒有,並非都不能入畫,只要用你的靈感與思想,不變更原理而得其神態,畫得含有古意而又不落俗套,這就算藝術了。



 (一) 臨摹: 鉤勒線條來就規矩法度。

 (二) 寫生: 了解物理,觀察物態,體會物情。

 (三) 立意: 人物、故事、山水、花卉,雖小景要有大寄托。

 (四) 創境: 自出新意,力去陳腐。

 (五) 求雅: 讀書養性,擺脫塵俗。

 (六) 求骨氣,去廢筆。

 (七) 布局為次,氣韻為先。

 (八) 遺貌取神,不背原理。

 (九) 筆放心閒,不得矜才使氣。

 (十) 揣摩前人要能脫胎換骨,不可因襲盜竊。

 (十一)傳情記事: 如寫蔡琰歸漢,楊妃病齒,湓浦秋風等圖。

 (十二)大結構: 如穆天子傳,屈子離騷,唐文皇便橋會盟,郭汾陽單騎見虜等圖。

《談敦煌壁畫》Essays on Dunhuang Frescoes
























Aesthetics on Different Aspects of Chinese Painting 
~ by various ancient masters and authors
(Some of the selected quotes are related to Zhang Da-Chian's essays.)




~ 南齊 謝赫《古畫品錄序》





~ 五代 荊浩《筆法記》



自古鑒賞家分品有三: 曰神,曰妙,曰能。獨唐朱景玄撰《唐賢畫錄》,三品之外,更增逸品,其後黃體複作《益州名畫記(錄)》,乃以逸為先,而神、妙、能次之。景玄雖雲逸格不拘常法,用表賢遇,然逸之高,豈得附於三品之末,末若休複首推之為當地。至微宗皇帝,專尚法度,乃以神、逸、妙、能為。

~ 南宋 鄧椿《畫繼卷九/雜說/論遠》



~ 西漢 劉安《淮南子卷十七/說林訓》








~ 北宋 蘇軾《書鄢陵王主簿所畫折枝》二首之一



~ 元倪瓚《清 閣全集卷十/答張藻仲書》



~(傳)唐 王維《山水論》


~ 五代 荊浩《筆法記》



~ 北宋 郭熙、郭思《林泉高致/山水訓》


~ 北宋 郭熙、郭思《林泉高致/山水訓》


禪家有南北二宗,唐時始分;畫之南北宗,亦唐時分也,但其人非南北耳。北宗則李思訓父子著色山水,流傳而為宋之趙斡、趙伯駒、伯 ,以及馬、夏輩;南宗則王摩詰始用瀉淡,一變鉤斫之法,其傳為張 、荊、關、董、巨、郭忠恕、米家父子,以至元之四大家,亦如六祖之後,有馬駒、雲門、臨濟兒孫之盛,而北宗微矣。要之,摩詰所謂雲峰石跡,回出天機;筆意縱滿,參平造化者。東坡讚吳道子、王維畫,亦吾於維也無間然。知言哉。


~ 董其昌《畫旨》



~(傳)唐 王維《山水論》



~ 北宋 韓拙《山水純全集》



~ 蔣和《學畫雜論/立意》



~ 北宋 韓拙《山水鈍全集》



~ 董其昌《畫旨》


畫中設色之法與用墨無異,全論火候,不在取色,而在取氣,故墨中有色,色中有墨。古人眼光直透紙背,大約在此。今人但取傅彩悅目,不問節腠,不入 要,宜其浮而不實也。

~ 王原祁《麓台題畫稿/仿大癡》



~ 沈宗騫《芥舟學畫編卷二/山水/避俗》






~ 北宋 邵雍《伊川擊壤集》卷十八



~ 南宋 趙希鵠《洞天清錄/古畫辨》



Zhang Da-Chian On Figure Paintings

In his early years Zhang Da-Chian’s figure and lady paintings resembled the styles of Ming and Ching Dynasties. His figure paintings transformed and matured after his two trips to Dunhuang where he spent great efforts to copy and study the murals. He had traveled there in 1941 and 1943 and stayed there for 31 (or 32) months. He had copied more that 270 murals with his students and followers.

The Mogao Grottoes were in the southeast of Dunhuang, at the foot of Mingsha Mountain. The thousands of murals in the Mogao Grottoes ranged from Wei Dynasty to Sung Dynasty. For thousands of years, the place had been deserted until some Westerners came in 1900 and 1907 and stole the relics away, hence the treasures in Dunhuang became known to the world.

The Mogao Grottoes were built before the Sui Dynasty. All the murals in them inherited the traditional style of Han Dynasty folk paintings. Paintings in the Northern Chi Period brought forth a sudden conspicuous change which was linked to the literary paintings of the south. Gu Kai-Zhi of the Eastern Jin Dynasty became a leader of the new style.

Zhang Da-Chian said when he first encountered the Dunhuang murals, he felt dazzled and confused. He found his previous study of ancient works quite inadequate. Zhang met a number of problems when he began copying the murals. All the grottoes faced east, hence they became completely dark in the afternoon and copying work could only be done in the morning. The silk and paper they brought from Chengdu were too small and had to be sewn or glued together for the huge paintings. The seams affected the pictures. The ordinary colors they brought looked dim and gloomy when compared to the original colors of the murals.

To solve the problems, Zhang sent his son Zhang Xin-Zhu ( 張心智 ) to Xining with two other persons. They invited the lama painters from the monastery to join them in Dunhuang. The lama painters could draw religious paintings. They could also make colors and sew canvas. They treated the canvas in a special way so that it looked similar to the ancient paintings. The special colors they made were also close to those on the murals.

As there was a lot of copying work to do, Zhang could only drew the outlines himself and let the lamas did the coloring. One day when Zhang was working in grotto numbered 20, he suddenly discovered that at the right bottom corner where the mural was torn, there seemed to be colors and lines underneath. After repeated discussions with his students, they decided to tear down the outer layer. When they did, they found a richly colored Tang Dynasty mural beneath the outer layer. Zhang described the event in an article later.

Zhang Da-Chian spent a long time in Dunhuang. He was completely overcome with admiration for the glamorous Tang Dynasty murals. He studied them hard and copied them, hence his later figure paintings were in the Tang Dynasty style. They became marvelous in spirit.

Zhang Da-Chian had said that according to his own experience, one should first work on outlines, then on sketching before one turned onto freehand style. He said one should start by copying ancient masterpieces in order to develop one’s outlining skills and understand the painting rules. He summarized his experiences into the following points:

1. copy and outline to learn the rules

2. sketch, observe and understand the objects

3. set the inner meaning of the picture

4. develop an innovative atmosphere

5. pursue an elegant style

6. avoid unnecessary and improper details

7. place the spirit and mood in the first priority, the second priority is the composition

8. capture the spirit of the objects and do not contradict the natural rules

9. not to be arrogant for one’s talent

10. copy ancient masters and learn their essence, but do not steal from their works

Apart from doing ordinary lady paintings, Zhang Da-Chian had later gone to sketch in Tibet. He drew many outstanding pieces on Tibetan women which revealed techniques and atmospheres learned from the Dunhuang murals.

Zhang had said that painting should not achieve too close a likeness with the real object, yet there should not be deliberate unlikeness. One had to strike a balance between likeness and unlikeness for conveying the natural beauty. This was the art of painting.

~ Xie Zhu-Liu ( 謝智柳 )

In “Paintings of Famous Modern Chinese Artists - Zhang Da-Chian, Recluse Paintings” by Xie Zhu-Liu, recorded by Zhou Ke-Wen, published on 1 June 1994, Han Mo Xuan Publishing Co., Ltd.

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梅丘生死摩耶夢 (高陽) A book about Zhang's life. 272 pages in Chinese texts. Free reading online.

Google book search: http://books.google.com/books?id=6CjvRnquphoC&pg=PA65&lpg=PA65&dq=+%22%E6%9D%8E%E9%A0%86%E8%8F%AF%22&source=web&ots=-nFioN8ulV&sig=F20RMRCalDckhC2BPBdvuiB3wVw&khl=en#PPP1,M1.

張大千常用印款 (西泠印社出版社 ISBN:c7807352300)


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